DEADLY CREATURES YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT
This list of scary deadly things will amaze you
WHEN a red-bellied black snake is looking for food, not even the world’s second-most-venomous land snake can escape being on the dining menu of the red bellied black snake.
Recently Sean Shaw captured footage on his phone of a red-bellied black snake chasing down and ingesting a brown snake on a dirt road near Myponga, south of Adelaide in South Australia.
The brown snake tries desperately to retaliate, but cannot penetrate the scales of its hunter, despite trying again and again.
Mr Shaw – who used to work for Adelaide Snake Catchers – said he first sighted the red-bellied black chase the brown snake across the road as he drove past, and stopped to film the fight.
“After about a 20-minute tussle the red-bellied black snake eventually was able to swallow the brown snake,” he said.
“The whole episode took maybe half an hour.
“When we left the brown snake was about half swallowed but (the red-bellied) seemed to have stalled!”
While confronting, snake catcher Corey Renton, from Snakeaway Services, states it’s not really that uncommon.
“Red-bellies are really reptile eaters,” Mr Renton said.
The Brown snakes food preferences are rodents while red-bellies gorge on frogs and lizards, they live in waterholes,dams and creeks naturally.
Red-bellied black snakes are dangerous to humans but their bites are not usually deadly.
Contrary to popular belief, domestication has made dogs less likely to cooperate to get food than wolves
Anyone who’s watched a dogsled team in action knows that dogs are capable of teamwork. Many researchers even believe that due to domestication, dogs are likely more cooperative than their wild wolf cousins. But as Elizabeth Pennisi reports for Science, a new study shows just the opposite, suggesting that wild wolves work together much more coherently than dogs.
To compare the two species, Sarah Marshall-Pescini of the University of Vienna tested dogs and wolves at the Wolf Science Center in Austria, which houses a pack of 15 mutts and seven small packs of wolves. All of the animals are raised in semi-wild conditions. She tested the canines using the “loose string” test, which involves placing pairs of dogs or wolves in front of a cage with a tray of food in it. In order to slide the tray out of the cage, both animals had to pull on a rope simultaneously.
When the animals tested were not initially trained to pull the ropes, five out of seven wolf pairs were able to figure out the test and cooperate enough to get the food in at least one trial. For the dogs, only one pair in eight cooperated enough to figure out the test—and they only accomplished it in a single trial.
In a second test, the animals were briefly trained on how to tug the ropes. When tested again, three out of four wolf teams figured out how to pull the tray together. But dogs again failed, with only two out of six pairs able to get the food. And in those cases, they succeeded during just one trial. The researchers published their results in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“We were surprised at how little the dogs did cooperate,” Marshall-Pescini tells George Dvorsky at Gizmodo. “We expected a difference but perhaps we were not quite prepared at how big of a difference we saw.”
Though dogs seemed engaged, they approached the food one at a time, “very respectfully waiting for one to finish before the other started,” she says, which prohibited them from testing out teamwork. Meanwhile, the wolves cooperated well, working together on the level of chimpanzees, according to Helen Briggs at the BBC.
In some ways, the results are not surprising. Wolves are highly social and live in packs, raise their young together and hunt as a team. Dogs, when left to fend for themselves in wild or semi-wild conditions, raise their young on their own and look for food as individuals, not as a group.
The study also shows that researchers need to conduct more studies on free-ranging dogs, reports Ed Yong at The Atlantic. Similar studies of pet dogs show they work much more cooperatively, likely because they are trained or educated by their human companions. While most people in the United States think of dogs as the popcorn-stealing pal that watches movies in their lap, 80 percent of dogs in the world live wild in the streets of villages or agricultural areas.
“If I ask people to close their eyes and think of a dog, everyone thinks of a pet dog,” Marshall-Pescini tells Yong. “But pet dogs are a really recent invention and free-ranging dogs are more representative of the earlier stages of domestication. We need to base our theories on a different understanding of what a dog is.”
There are several theories for why semi-wild dogs aren’t as cooperative as wolves. As Yong reports, it’s possible that in the process of domestication humans, rather than other dogs, stepped into the role of dogs’ social partners. It’s also possible that the lack of cooperation is an adaptation to living in a human environment where the ability to grab a snack from the trash is more important than cooperating to take down an elk.
Another hypothesis is that dogs actively try to avoid resource conflict with each other, writes Dvorsky, and that prevents them from doing well on this particular task. Whatever the case, it sheds some light on the differences between the two related species and shows what needs to be investigated next.
Reviving a long-dead Galapagos tortoise will take Jurassic Park-esque tactics—but have humans already intervened too much?
Today’s Galapagos tortoises mostly feature dome-shaped shells, like the one shown here. But researchers have found some that have the saddleback-shaped shells and longer necks that once characterized extinct Floreana and Pinta tortoises. (Sunshine Pics / Alamy)
On a remote tropical island in the middle of the ocean, researchers have managed to succesfully extract the DNA of long-extinct reptiles. Now, these genetic pioneers are working to bring them back to life. No, this isn’t the latest sequel to Jurassic Park. It’s an ambitious conservation effort to bring back the Galapagos Islands’ extinct Floreana tortoise, after conservationists discovered their distant genetic relatives on nearby islands.
Nor is the plot of the original Jurassic Park likely to play out on Floreana Island. However, for conservation biologists working to avoid disrupting the balance between humans and their natural surroundings, there are some instructive parallels. In fact, the InGen scientists on the fictional Isla Nublar might have learned a thing or two from the groups working to save the Floreana tortoise today.
This real life sci-fi plot all began when Gisella Caccone, senior research scientist at Yale University, took her first exploratory trip to the Galapagos Islands over 20 years ago to gather tortoise blood samples for genetic analysis. On one island, her team noticed a group of tortoises with saddleback-shaped shells rather than the prevalent dome-shaped shells, a morphological distinction reminiscent of the extinct Floreana and Pinta tortoises.
When they looked at the genomes of the tortoises on Wolf Island, over 200 miles away from Floreana Island, they noticed genetic divergences that did not match any known tortoise species. “I called them aliens because I thought they were from Mars or something,” she laughs.
Intrigued, her team headed to the museums, where bone samples from the rich history of humans mingling with Galapagos tortoises yielded DNA samples—the team’s very own mosquitos in amber. Using bone samples of tortoises at different museums including the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, Caccone and her team built genetic profiles for several extinct species.
In comparing them to the “alien” animals, the scientists noticed components of new genome that were closely related to two extinct species: Floreana and Pinta.
In the film, Jurassic Park was built on an island because isolation is key to developing new species and keeping them distinct. Similarly, the Galapagos naturally lends itself to speciation (hence, Darwin’s famous finches). The islands’ closed ecosystems allow species that arrive on this volcanic archipelago some 800 miles away from mainland Ecuador to interbreed and adapt to the specific islands’ geography until they no longer resemble their mainland relatives—or even their neighboring relatives on other islands.
That all changed, however, when humans arrived.
Logbooks from some of the Galapagos’ earliest visitors, in the late 17th century, reveal that mariners brought tortoises onto their boats for food, but would drop them onto other islands if their cargo was full of whale meat or other economically viable resources. The haphazard movement of tortoises from island to island allowed the species to intermingle and create hybrid populations like the ones found of Wolf Island.
The human impact on the fragile, isolated Galapagos was profound. Besides killing and cooking critters, mariners and buccaneers also brought rats and other pests with them to the islands that decimated the local populations. The last pure Floreana tortoise died out some time not long after Darwin visited in 1835—leaving him just enough time to enjoy some delicious tortoise soup.
But the same human carelessness that destroyed the Floreana tortoise now gives modern scientists the opportunity to bring it back: The transfer of tortoises from island to island ensured that their genes were distributed enough for today’s scientists to find them.
After identifying the genes from the extinct tortoises in the Wolf Island population, Caccone and her team returned to gather more DNA samples. They focused on Banks Bay Harbor on Wolf Volcano, a perfect spot for mariners to drop off wayward tortoises. They gathered 1,600 blood samples from tortoises by flipping the giant reptiles, drawing blood from a vein in their leg, equipping them with a microchip for tracking and sending them on their merry way.
Though the tortoises strongly exhibited Floreana genes, it seemed Pinta genes had all but disappeared (at least, based on the specimens Caccone and her team collected when they returned in 2008). When the results were published in 2013, locals and tortoise-loving scientists alike couldn’t help but be a little disappointed; the last Pinta tortoise, the beloved Lonesome George, died in 2012.
But Caccone is optimistic. Her earlier studies show that the Pinta genes are out there—her team just has to focus their efforts.
The next step in reviving the Floreana tortoise is a simple captive breeding program, which is being run by the Galapagos Conservancy and the National Park. The scientists play matchmaker with male and female tortoises to bring the Floreana gene expression to the forefront. Though breeding programs have been successful in the past—15 Española tortoises once brought their species back from the brink of extinction—such selective breeding has not been done before with tortoises in the Galapagos.
The conservationists in the Galapagos have something that those in Jurassic Park did not: purpose, and one grander than human entertainment. The Floreana tortoise is crucial for helping to restore the island ecosystem, explains Linda Cayot, science advisor at the Galapagos Conservancy explains. Cayot calls them the island’s “ecological engineers”; as they amble around, they plow trails, graze and deposit plants in their path.
“Tortoises are the dominant herbivore in the Galapagos,” she says. “They are incredibly important to maintaining the island ecosystems.”
Floreana is one of the islands that the National Park hopes to restore to its natural diversity—or at least get close. In an ideal world, the tortoises would be bred in captivity until the Floreana genes were brought to prominence, but tortoises mature slowly and the habitat restoration cannot wait. “I will not be alive to see a ‘pure’ Floreana tortoise,” Caccone says. It’s likely that no one will.
The first generation of Floreana tortoises will be raised in captivity on Santa Cruz Island for five years (any less, and the tortoises are small enough to be easy snacks for other Galapagos species). Once they are released, evolution will run its course and some genetic combinations that are favored for Floreana will reign supreme. The Galapagos will once again have a tortoise species tailored to the Floreana environment.
“It’s hugely exciting to even come close to something that we thought was extinct for 150 years,” Cayot says.
But another human-caused island disaster stands in the way first: pests. Floreana Island is overrun by invasive cats and rats, which carry diseases and dine on hatchlings tortoises and eggs. They have already wreaked havoc on unique endemic species like the Floreana mockingbird, whose population has been reduced to the hundreds on fringe islets near the island they once called home.
“The majority of extinctions occur on islands with animals with invasive species,” explains Paula Castaño, a restoration specialist at Island Conservation, an organization that aims to eliminate invasive pests from the Galapagos. Island Conservation successfully removed rodents from Pinzón Island to save their endemic giant tortoise, but this the first time such would be done on an island with human inhabitants.
Though they only inhabit about 2 percent of the land on Floreana, the island’s 150 human residents have played an enormous role in helping rebuild the habitat to make it more suitable for the tortoise and other native species driven out by pests. It is in their best interest for the agriculture and ecotourism industries that serves as the economic lifeblood of the community.
“Our target is not just to provide healthy ecosystems for tortoises. We are looking to provide a balanced, healthy ecosystem for all the nature on Floreana and the community that is living there,” says Gloria Salvador, Island Conservation’s Floreana project facilitator. “People are living on Floreana, have been living there for many years and have a relationship with the environment.”
Which is good because, as Jurassic Park so neatly illustrated, in our world there must always be a balance between humans and nature. Humans never have total control; that’s the illusion.
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THIS is the bizarre moment a gardener spotted a threatening ‘bodybuilder’ 100kg kangaroo bathing its bulging biceps in an Australian creek.
Jackson Vincent snapped these astounding photographs of the huge roo tensing its rippling muscles in Boodjidup Creek in Margaret River, Western Australia.
The 27-year-old couldn’t believe his eyes when he clocked the mammoth two metre mammal standing in the water – and feared it could be preparing to attack beloved pet dog Dharma.
Jackson, from Freemantle, Perth, had been visiting his grandmother in Margaret River and saw the gargantuan animal on her property at about 11.30am.
He said: “I have been going to that creek since I was a little boy and there have always been kangaroos on the property.
“I was walking my dog and we saw this huge roo standing in the water. I have never seen a kangaroo standing in the water like that, we could just see his head at first.
“As I ran around him to take a picture he came closer and that was when I realised he was coming right at me and he was really big – one of the biggest I have ever seen.
“I am pretty confident around animals but the moment when he started to come out of the water my heart definitely jumped and I decided to take a few steps back.
“He looked to be at least two metres tall or taller and must have weighed at least 100 kg
“He had a really big body and was taller than me. There are a lot of roos at my grandma’s place but I have never seen one that muscular before – he was a big macho male.
“I decided to get Dharma out of there as we thought the kangaroo was going to lure her into the water to drown her.”
Jackson’s Facebook post with his images of the kangaroo’s muscular physique instantly went viral, racking up thousands of likes and shares.
Online commenters were quick to point out the animal’s impressive bodybuilder-like muscular shoulders, biceps and chest and threatening posture.
After dropping Kelpie Dharma back at his grandmother’s house Jackson returned to the creek to see the roo was still there.
Jackson added: “His claws were really big – they were as long as my hand. That for me was even scarier than his muscles, they looked nasty.
“I have never seen a kangaroo be so defensive – it definitely looked like he was puffing his chest muscles up.
“I definitely wouldn’t like to take him on in a boxing match.”