Category Archives: POISONS TOXINS

Watch out for these Worlds Most Deadliest 41 Venomous Dangerous Snakes on Earth.

Adding more here to our data base of the worlds most dangerous snakes. No particular order. Just enjoy the scarey journey.Presented to you by Henry Sapiecha of the www.pythonjungle.com site + 100 other sites that I have enjoyed developing & sharing with you all.

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1…Caspian Cobra


The Caspian cobra is found in central Asia. This snake is known for being very aggressive and bad-tempered. They tend to avoid humans, but will become aggressive towards them if they feel threatened. When feeling threatened it will spread its hood, hiss, and sway side-to-side, then finally strike its target multiple times. Once bitten a person may experience drowsiness, weakness, paralysis of the limbs. If untreated, the bite can result in death from respiratory failure

2…Monocled Cobra

The Monocled Cobra is widespread across south and southeast Asia. The monocled cobra was given its name due to its O-shaped, or monocellate hood pattern. These cobras prefer habitats with water such as paddy fields or swamps. However, they can adapt easily and can also be found in grasslands and forests. This cobra causes the most fatalities from snake venom poisoning in Thailand. In severe cases of envenomation death can occur within 60 minutes.

3…Jameson’s Green Mamba

The Jameson’s Green Mamba is very similar to its counterparts, the Eastern and Western Green Mamba. The Jameson’s Green Mamba can grow up to 8 feet and 8 inches (2.64 meters) long, with a dull green color across the back that blends into a pale green. It’s scales are normally edged with black. They inhabit parts of Africa and prefer landscapes such as primary and secondary rainforests, woodland, and forest-savanna. However, they are highly adaptable and can be found many times in urban areas. Their venom is highly neurotoxic and death can occur between 30-120 minutes.

4 …Rhinoceros Viper

The Rhinoceros viper is very similar to the Gaboon Viper, but has a less dangerous bite. They are slow moving, but are capable of striking quickly and it all directions, without warning. If they feel threatened, they will hiss. Its hiss is said to be the loudest out of all the African snakes, and it sounds more like a shriek. Their venom contains a neurotoxin and hemotoxin which attacks the circulatory system of its victims.

5…Chinese Cobra

The Chinese Cobra is one of the most venomous members of the cobra family. It is mainly found in mainland China and Taiwan, and has caused the most snakebites in those areas. The Chinese Cobra is always aware of its surroundings and is seldom cornered. However, if it feels threatened it will raise its forebody and spread its hood, ready to strike. Local symptoms of a bite include pain, insensibility and necrosis. Necrosis, even after treatment, may persist for many years within the victim.

5…Coastal Taipan

If untreated, a Coastal Taipan bite is 100% fatal. You do not need to worry, unless you are in the northern and eastern regions of Australia or in New Guinea. Coastal Taipans are the longest venomous snake in Australia and can grow up to 6.6 feet (2 meters) long. The Coastal Taipan’s venom consists of a highly potent neurotoxin that affects the nervous system and the blood’s ability to clot. Death can occur in as little as 30 minutes after a bite.

6…Red-Bellied Black Snake

The red-bellied black snake is found in parts of eastern Australia. It inhabits woodlands, forests and swamplands. It is also common to find them in urban areas. The snake is glossy black on the dorsal surface and red, crimson or pink in color on the lower sides and belly. This snake is normally not aggressive. However, if it feels threatened, it will recoil into a striking stance. Bites from these snakes are not normally fatal, but you should still seek medical attention.

7…Mali Cobra

The Mali cobra is a species of venomous spitting cobra that is found in Western Africa. The cobra ranges from Senegal to Cameroon, with reports to also be found from Gambia, Burkina Faso, southern Mali, and a few other countries. It inhabits both tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Its venom contains postsynaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and cytotoxic activity. The Mali cobra is responsible for the most snake bites in Senegal.

8…Sea Snake


Sea Snake’s venom is more toxic than its land-dwelling counterparts. However, sea snakes will only attack when provoked. However, the danger of a sea snake should not be underestimated. Most people that have been bitten work on trawlers, in the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific, as snakes are sometimes hauled in with the catch. Only a small proportion of bites have been fatal. Symptoms, such as muscles aches, spasms will most likely occur  30 minutes after the bite. If not treated one can suffer from more severe symptoms such as blurred vision and respiratory paralysis.

9…Egyptian Cobra

The Egyptian Cobra is one of the largest cobra species in Africa. It has many similar physical traits to other cobras, like a hood. However, what makes it distinct is its coloring and often a tear-drop mark near the eye. This cobra has very large fangs which allows it to deliver large quantities of venom. A bite should be considered a medical emergency as its venom affects the nervous system which eventually leads to respiratory failure

10…King Brown Snake

The King Brown Snake is the second longest species of venomous snakes in Australia. They can grow up to 9.8 feet (3 meters) long. Their venom is relatively weak compared to other species. However, what they lack in quality, they make up for in quantity. These snakes will deliver large amounts of venom when they bite. The average snakes deliver 180 milligrams during a bite. The king brown delivers close to 600 milligrams. The untreated mortality rate is 30-40%.

11…Dugite


The dugite is a venomous snake found in western Australia. Dugites are normally shy and will slither away upon seen a human. However, like many other snakes will attack if they feel cornered. Dugites are considered highly dangerous due to their very potent venom that causes both coagulopathic and procoagulant effects. Although they rarely bite humans, when they do, it is normally during when they are most active in their mating season (October and November)

12…Gaboon Viper

The Gaboon viper lives in the rainforests and savannas of sub-Saharan Africa. It is the worlds heaviest viperid and has the longest fangs of 5 centimeters (2 inches). It is normally slow moving and placid, and they are known for lying in wait for hours for their prey to pass by. Due to their docile nature, bites normally only occur when they are stepped on. However, it should be considered a medical emergency when a bite does occur.

13…Black-Necked Spitting Cobra


Keep your distance from this snake, as the black-necked spitting cobra can eject venom from its fangs over 7 meters (23 feet) with perfect accuracy. They are mainly found in just sub-Saharan Africa and can grow up to 2.2 meters (7.2 feet) long. Bites can lead to blisters, inflammation and permanent blindness if venom makes contact with the eyes.

14…Sharp-Nosed Pit Viper

The Sharp-nosed pit viper is found in southeast Asia. Its highly potent venom contains hemotoxin that is very likely to lead to hemorrhaging. Its nickname is the “hundred pacer.” It has been believed that victims will only be able to walk 100 steps before dying. However, there is an antivenin made in Taiwan. Symptoms from a bite include swelling, blistering, necrosis, and ulceration

15…Cape Cobra

The Cape Cobra is considered one of the most dangerous snakes in Africa due to its highly potent venom and its common occurrences around houses. The mortality rate for bites from a cape cobra are unknown, but are believed to be high. If a victim does not receive the antivenin it is likely he or she will die from respiratory failure.

16…South American Bushmaster

The longest snakes in the western hemisphere are the South American Bushmasters. In addition, they are the longest pit-viper in the world. They inhabit parts of South America and tend to dwell in equatorial forests. The primarily feed on mice and rats, but will attack when provoked. Unfortunately, not much is known about their venom as they are highly susceptible from stress. Therefore, they die quickly when in captivity.

17…Jararaca


The jararaca is a species of pit-viper found in souther Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. The snake prefers to live in open areas, such as farmland. Its venom is considered very toxic and causes symptoms such as bruising and blistering of the affected limb and spontaneous systemic bleeding of the gums and into the skin. However, one good thing was derived from the venom, the ACE inhibitor, which is used to treat hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure.

18…Forest Cobra


The forest cobra is native to Africa, mainly dwelling in the central and western parts of the continent. Its preferred habitat in the lowland forest and moist savannah. However, it can be found in drier climates and is a very good swimmer. Although bites to humans are rare, they are very dangerous when they occur. This snake injects a large amount of venom into its victims. Death can occur 30-120 minutes after being bitten.

19…Western Green Mamba

The western green mamba, as you would suspect, resides in west Africa. However, bites to people from this snake are very uncommon. However, when people are bitten the mortality rate is extremely high. Once bitten there is a rapid progression of life-threatening symptoms including suffocation resulting from paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Death has been also been reported to occur within 30 minutes of the bite.

20…Eastern Green Mamba

The eastern green mamba resides in East Africa and is normally found dwelling in trees. This highly venomous snake can grown up to 2 meters (6.6 feet) in length. This species has bitten many humans, many of which have resulted in fatalities. There was one case where someone died in as little as 30 minutes after the bite. Other symptoms of the venom include difficulty breathing, convulsions and nausea.

21…Common Death Adder


The common death adder is native to Australia. Not only is it one of the most venomous snakes in Australia, but also the whole world. The death adder is a master of camouflage and likes to hide beneath loose leaves in woodlands and grasslands. Its venom contains a very potent neurotoxin which can lead to death within 6 hours after the bite.

22…Malayan Krait


The Malayan krait inhabits Thailand and much of Southeast Asia. They tend to shy away from the sun and are very active at night. Their venom is highly poisonous and death can result as soon as 12-24 hours after bite. Sadly, even after treatment, 50% of its victims will succumb to effects of the poison, dying usually from respiration failure.

23…Many-Banded Krait


Also known as the Taiwanese or Chinese Krait, the many-banded krait is a highly venomous snake found in southern China and Southeast Asia. In the daytime, this snakes hides in places such as holes and under rocks. However, at night, it hunts and becomes more aggressive. Symptoms will not appear promptly after bite, but may show hours later. If untreated, death is likely 70-100% of the time.

24…Terciopelo Viper


The terciopelo viper is one of the most dangerous snakes in the neotropical rainforest in Central America. They can grow up to 2.5 meters (8 feet) long and have heads that are 10 centimeters (4 inches) wide. They are responsible for the majority of snakebites in Central America. Their venom contains hemotoxins and if not treated with an antivenin can lead to death.

25…Common Krait

A member of the “big four” species in India, the common krait, is also known as the blue krait. The common krait feeds on other snakes and small mammals. Although reluctant to bite people, if it does, it will clasp and hold for awhile in order to inject a large amount of venom. The venom consists of mostly powerful neurotoxins leading to muscle paralysis.

26…Russell’s Viper


Russell’s viper is found in the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. Like the Indian Cobra it is considered on of the “big four” species. Russell’s viper can grow up to 166 centimeters (5.5 feet) in length. The snake is often times found in high urbanized areas due to the attraction of rodents. Therefore, those working in fields outside of cities are at a high risk of being bitten.

27…Indian Cobra


Made popular by snake charmers, the Indian cobra is found all over the Indian subcontinent. It is a member of the “big four” species, the 4 species that inflict the most snakebites on humans in India. However, as it’s admired in Indian culture, it is protected under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act. Its venom mainly consists of neuro and cardiotoxins. This means a bite can lead to paralysis of the muscles or even cardiac arrest. Symptoms can show anywhere between 15 minutes to 2 hours after the bite.

28…African Puff Adder


The puff adder is found in African savannah and grasslands, and is the most commonly found snake on the continent. Due to its commonality, it is responsible for causing the most snakebite fatalities in Africa. If they feel threatened or disturbed, they will adopt a tight coiled posture and the fore part of their body will form an “S” shape. They are very aggressive and strike very fast.

29…Philippine Cobra


If you see a Philippine Cobra, you better run away. These cobras are highly venomous and are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a target up to 3 meters (9.8 feet) away. The Philippine cobra is normally found in forested areas, along open fields. They are also fond of water, and therefore, can be found many times close to ponds and rivers. Small rodents are the preferred prey of their choice

30…Western Diamondback Rattlesnake


The western diamondback rattlesnake inhabits the southwestern area of the United States. It has been reported that it is most likely responsible for the majority of snakebite fatalities in northern Mexico and the largest number of snakebites in the U.S. The western diamondback rattlesnake has very large venom glands and special fangs so it can deliver a large amount of venom to its victims. However, as it normally preys on small mammals, it will only bite a human if provoked.

31…Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake


According to National Geographic “The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is the largest venomous snake in North America. Some reach 8 feet (2.4 meters) in length and weigh up to 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms).” Despite what people think the eastern diamondback rattlesnake will not attack humans unless it feels threatened. Bites normally happen when a person is taunting or trying to capture the snake. The last warning before a bite is when the snake violently shakes its tail. Bites can result in red blood cells deterioration, tissue damage, and if left untreated, death.

32…Common Lacehead


The common lacehead, also known as the bothrops atrox, inhabits the tropical lowlands of nothern South America. The species of pit-viper is easily agitated and is generally nocturnal. However, when necessary it may forage through the day, climbing trees and even swimming. It is often times found in coffee and banana plantations searching for rodents. Therefore, due to their camouflage, workers do not see the snakes and are often bitten. The venom is very lethal and fast acting. Even when received treatment, almost all cases lead to temporary of sometimes permanent memory loss.

33…Eastern Brown Snake


The eastern brown snake is mainly found along the east coast of Australia. The snake is considered to be the second-most venomous terrestrial snake. Its venom has both neurotoxins and blood coagulants. A bite from the eastern brown snake can cause dizziness, renal failure, paralysis and cardiac arrest. Although it normally only eats rodents, like mice, if it feels threatened, it will bite a human. It is responsible for 60% of snake bite deaths in Australia.

34…Inland Taipan

The Inland Taipan is the most venomous of all the snakes in the world. What also separates this snakes from many others is its prey. The snake is an expert in hunting mammals, therefore, its venom is adapted to kill warm-blooded species. It normally does not strike unless provoked. Its venom contains neurotoxins which affect the nervous system, hemotoxins which affect the blood, and myotoxins which affect the the muscles. If untreated the venom can be lethal.

35…Tiger Snake


Tiger Snakes are found in the southern regions of Australia and some of its coastal islands. It gets in name from its color, as it is often banded like a tiger. A tiger snake’s venom contains many potent toxins. Once bitten a person will experience, at first, localized pain followed by breathing difficulties and finally paralysis. Studies show that untreated bites have a mortality rate of 40-60%.

36…Boomslang

The sub-Saharan African Boomslang, may look cool. However, do not touch! The average adult boomslang is 100–160 cm (3¼–5¼ feet) in length, with extremely large eyes. The boomslang has a highly potent venom that it can deliver through fangs at the back of its jaw. The snake is able to open its jaws 170° when biting. The venom is mainly made of a hemotoxin which disables the coagulation process in a person’s body. Signs and symptoms of a bite may not show until hours after.

39…Black Mamba


The Black Mamba is found in the savannas and rocky areas in southern and eastern Africa. It can grow up to 14 feet long and can slither up to 12.5 mph, making it the fastest snake in all the planet. Although it only attacks when it is provoked, when it does attack beware. The Black Mamba will bite several times, delivering enough toxins to kill 10 people. There is a antivenin but it must be received within 20 minutes.

40…Saw-Scaled Viper


The Saw-Scaled Viper kills more people than any other snake each year. Although it only grows to 1-3 feet long, its venomous bite can do lots of damage. Their venom contains hemotoxins and cytotoxins, which leads to multiple bleeding disorders including the possibility of an intracranial hemorrhage. Many of these snakes are found in areas where modern medicine is not found. Therefore, victims sometimes suffer a long, painful death.

41…King Cobra

The King Cobra is the world’s longest venomous snake. It is predominantly found in India and other parts of Southeast Asia. The King Cobra’s venom’s toxins attack the victim’s central nervous system resulting in pain, vertigo and eventually paralysis. It has been reported that death can occur as short as 30 minutes without the antivenin. The toxin is so deadly, it could even kill a large elephant.

Henry Sapiecha

 

 

What’s the Difference Between Poisonous and Venomous Animals?

The first known venomous frogs, discovered in Brazil, raise some basic questions about

toxic biology

Corythomantis greeningi frogs carry potent venom in their pouts. image www.pythonjungle.com

Amid an arid forest of cacti, Corythomantis greeningi frogs look pretty harmless. In contrast to the bright cautionary colors of poison dart frogs, these tree frogs sport drab brown and green hues. So when Carlos Jared of Brazil’s Butantan Institute ventured out to collect and study them, he didn’t think they posed much of a threat—until he felt pain in his palm.

Compared to the Brazilian pit viper, C. greeningi is two times as lethal

brazil desert image www.pythonjungle.com

The two hylid frog species make their homes in desert forests called Caatingi in Brazil

“It took me a long time to realize that the pain had a relationship with the intense and careless collection of these animals hitting the palm of my hands,” recalls Jared. The biologist fell prey to a totally unique defense mechanism: The helmet-headed frogs use spikes along their lips to inject potent chemicals, giving aggressors a mix between a head butt and a toxic smooch. After careful study, Jared and his team found that C. greeningi and a related species of hylid frog, Aparasphenodon brunoi, are the only venomous frogs known to science.

frogspikes_toxic image www.pythonjungle.com

A closeup of a C. greeningi frog’s skin reveals the spikes that line its lips and the front of its head. (Carlos Jared)

“This is very, very cool. Unprecedented would actually be an understatement,” says Bryan Fry, a molecular biologist at the University of Queensland who was not affiliated with the study. But if we already knew frogs could be poisonous, why is this discovery such a big deal? The answer lies in the often-misunderstood difference between poison and venom.

komododragon_image www.pythonjungle.com

For years, scientists though that the Komodo dragon killed using bacteria that grow in its mouth. In reality, the lizards make their own venom in tiny mouth glands that no one had noticed before.

Some people use the words interchangeably because once in the body, the chemicals do
similar damage, attacking the heart, brain or other vital targets. But the terms do mean very
different things. Traditionally, venomous creatures bite, sting or stab you to do their damage
, while you have bite or touch poisonous critters to feel their effects. That means venomous
organisms need a way in, like fangs or teeth.
All octopuses are venomous, along with some squid, plenty of snakes, spiders, and scorpions,
octopus image www.pythonjungle.com
Also a few lizards, vampire bats and even the slow lorisNycticebus kayan.
Some fish, including lionfish, use spines to sting attackers with venom.
lionfish_image www.pythonjungle.com
The Brazilian frogs aren’t even the only venomous amphibians.
When attacked, Iberian ribbed newts push out their own ribs so that spikes on the ends

jab a predator with toxin.

The Iberian ribbed newt image www.pythonjungle.com

The Iberian ribbed newt widens its ribs to push out spikes Wolverine-style and nick predators with the venomous tips. Though the newts’ toxins are less well studied, researchers think the animals may employ a similar venomous strategy to that of the hylid frogs.

Poisonous organisms take a more passive approach, often lining the skin or other surfaces with toxic chemicals. Poisons can either be brewed from scratch inside the animal or acquired through diet.

Cane toads naturally secrete poison they make in glands behind their ears.

canetoad identification image www.pythonjungle.com

Meanwhile, poison dart frogs generate a highly poisonous alkaloid skin coating they derive from munching on ants. Mama frogs pass the chemical on to tadpoles via egg sacs, so if you take a young poison dart frog out of its natural habitat, it will actually lose toxicity.

Having to digest unsavory foods to survive may be what drove some organisms to evolve poisons, which are primarily used to defend against predators. “If this provided some protection against predation, you can see how this could favor the evolution of systems to actually concentrate the toxins in the skin rather than dispose of them,” explains Kyle Summers, an evolutionary biologist at East Carolina University.

Venoms have popped up on roughly 30 separate occasions across the tree of life, estimates Fry. Most derive from perfectly normal enzymes. For example, spider venom originated from a harmless hormone—the spider version of insulin. One way that can happen is when the gene for a common protein in one organ gets duplicated. The copy mutates and eventually shows up somewhere it’s not supposed to be—like the salivary glands in snakes. When the creature then bites prey or defends itself against a predator, the tweaked protein might be slightly toxic to their opponent. Over time, evolution favors the venomous members of the species and the enzyme evolves in potency.

In the case of the venomous frogs, both species were discovered in the 1800s, but they had hopped under the radar until now because no one had previously taken an in-depth look at their biology.

“Even the most recent book on Brazilian frogs lists them as nontoxic,” says study co-author Edmund Brodie, a biologist at Utah State University. So after Jared’s incident in the field, he wanted to figure out what kind of toxic wizardry might be at play. The researchers carefully collected wild C. greeningi and A. brunoi for lab tests. They found that both frogs secrete a sticky white concoction of compounds that contains some of the same characteristics as venom.

The team then saw that glands supply the toxin to spikes in the frogs’ skin. When the frogs flex their helmet heads up and down or side-to-side, the spikes jab the skin of unsuspecting predators (or scientists) like biological syringes, injecting small doses of the toxin into the bloodstream, Jared and his colleagues report today in Current Biology. Modern hylid frogs have no known predators. However, somewhere down the line it must have given them an advantage over something trying to eat them.

Alternatively, like the male platypus, the frogs could be using their venom to take out mating competition.

platypus_image www.pythonjungle.com

By contrast, venoms evolved for defense, offense—or both. Some organisms even use venom in mating. The male platypus shoots his toxin out of tiny, prickly foot barbs to paralyze rival suitors.
Don’t let the adorable duck bill fool you. Platypus venom, manufactured in the egg-laying mammal’s cural glands, briefly paralyzes mating rivals, allowing the victor to swoop in on a female.

Because the toxins get delivered in different ways, venoms tend to be larger compounds that must be injected to break through skin, while poisons are usually smaller chemicals that can be absorbed. So is one type of toxin fundamentally more potent than the other?

Golden poison arrow frogs can kill a human with as little as two micrograms of their alkaloid skin goo.

goldendartfrog_image www.pythonjungle.com

Meanwhile, a single drop of inland taipan snake venom can kill 100 people.

inlandtaipain_snake image www.pythonjungle.com

 A. brunoi is 25 times as lethal. Roughly one gram of A. brunoi’s venom could kill 300,000 mice or 80 humans. That said, the hylid frogs probably produce and deliver their venom in much smaller doses.

brunoi frog image www.pythonjungle.com

A. brunoi frogs have similar head structures to those of C. greeningi, so researchers think they might serve similar purposes. (Carlos Jared)

“The toxicity of both poisons and venoms varies dramatically across species in nature,” says Summers, so it’s impossible to say that one type of chemical weapon is fundamentally more dangerous. The main takeaway is that both venom and poison can kill you in truly horrifying and painful ways. Field biologists, beware.

www.clublibido.com (8)

Henry Sapiecha

TRIBAL HOME BREW,CROCODILE BILE, FUNERAL IN AFRICA ENDED IN THE DEATH OF 69 PEOPLE, SEE WHAT HAPPENED.

Poisoned Beer Leads to 69 Deaths in Mozambique Africa

A man drinks traditional beer in  Polokwane, South Africa, on 26 February 2010

MAPUTO, Mozambique (AP) — When a crocodile is killed, the bile of the animal must be immediately removed and buried in front of witnesses to prove that it has not fallen into the wrong hands, to be used as poison, according to some African traditions.

The deadly greenish-brown liquid, produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, is now believed to have been put into traditional beer that killed 69 people who drank it at a funeral in Mozambique’s northeast Tete province, health authorities said.

bad-beer-kills-nearly-70-people-in-mozambique

District health official, Alex Albertini, said poisoning by crocodile bile was common in the area, in an interview with Radio Mozambique.

About 196 people were admitted to a hospital in the Chitima district, according to the province’s Health, Women and Social Welfare Director Paula Bernardo.

“People flocked to the hospital, suffering from diarrhea and muscle pain,” Bernardo told Radio Mozambique. “Then bodies from various neighborhoods were brought to the hospital, and this alerted us.”

Pombe, a traditional Mozambican beer, is made from millet or corn flour and brewed for about two days. Pombe is especially enjoyed during ceremonies, and is often sold in rural areas of the southern African country.

The victims of the suspected poisoning were attending the funeral of a newborn baby in the Chitima district near the Cahora Bassa lake, Albertini told Radio Mozambique.

69 die in Mozambique after drinking beer laced with croc’s bile

The child’s mother, who brewed the Pombe, was among the dead.

Mourners who drank the beer in the morning reported no illness, while those who drank the beer in the afternoon, fell ill, authorities said. They believe the beer must have been poisoned while funeral goers were at the cemetery.

Blood and traditional beer samples were sent to the capital Maputo to be tested, said provincial health director Carle Mosse.

“We are waiting for the results of the tests of the samples being done at Maputo Central Hospital so that we can identify the type of the product put into the drink,” said Mosse.

Mosse told Radio Mozambique on Sunday that she expected the situation to worsen because the region did not have the necessary resources to deal with the disaster.

Police have no leads yet and are investigating the incident, and reinforcements have been sent to the affected districts, according to Radio Mozambique.

Health workers have travelled to the area to assist, according to the health ministry spokesman Julio Mendes.

Killer ingredient ... Authorities believe the drink was poisoned with crocodile bile. Pic
Mozambique’s government on Sunday declared three days of mourning, from Monday to Wednesday.

The leader of the opposition Renamo party, Afonso Dhlakama, has postponed a political rally to travel to the region to meet with the victims’ families, according to local newspaper, O Pais.

Authorities are collecting clothing, food and coffins for the bereaved families.

fibreglass animal belts banner image www.pythonjungle.com

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